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John Joseph Clancy — , usually known as J. Clancy, was an Irish nationalist View more info. Publisher: Dublin, Hodges and Smith: Free endpapers are detached and chipped along edges; cloth is worn at spine ends especially tail and rubbed at corners. Faint former owner's stamp on title. In his early career worked O'Donovan for antiquarian James Hardiman researching state papers and traditional sources; he tau Over the next five decades, MacManus travelled back and forth between Ireland By: Mackenzie, R.

Publisher: New York, Redfield: Ferrris," otherwise clean and secure in original green cloth binding with gilt lettering at spine. Cloth worn at spine ends. A wonderful collection of Irish folklore and stories.

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An example: "The stone this is, whoever kisses, He never misses to grow eloquent: 'tis he may clamber to a lady's chamber, Or become a member of Parliament. Irish Stories include Publisher: Dublin, The Talbot Press: Every Irishman's Library; xxxiv, pages; Clean and secure in original green cloth binding with gilt lettering and decorative stamping in blind. Publisher: Boston, Little, Brown and Co. Autograph; pages; Signed by Donn Byrne on the limitation page. OCLC: No. He was born in New York City where his Irish parents were on a business trip at the time, and soon after returned with them to Ireland.

He grew up being equally fluent in Irish and English, growing up in an area where Gaelic was still spoken. He returned to New York in O'Doherty, Bishop of Derry. Publisher: London, J. Clean and tight in original green cloth binding with bright gilt lettering at spine. In the Royal Irish Academy awarded him the Cunningham gold medal "for his literary writings, especially in the field of Shakespearian criticism. By: O'Toole, John ; [pseudonym "Imaal"]. He devoted himself, inter alia , to optical work, and is perhaps best known by those researches which deal with the undulatory theory of light.

It was on this subject that he delivered the Burnett lectures in Aberdeen James McCullagh, the son of a poor farmer, was born in Tyrone in , d. His early death, due to his own hand in a fit of insanity, cut short his work, but enough remains to permit him to rank amongst the great mathematicians of all time, his most important work being his memoir on surfaces of the second order. Humphrey Lloyd b. His father was Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, a position subsequently occupied also by the son. He was responsible for the erection of the Magnetic Observatory in Dublin, and the instruments used in it were constructed under his observation and sometimes from his designs or modifications.

He was also a meteorologist of distinction. George Salmon b.

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Besides theological writings, he contributed much to mathematical science, especially in the directions of conic sections, analytic geometry, higher plane curves, and the geometry of three dimensions. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and received the Copley and Royal medals, as well as distinctions from many universities and learned societies. John Casey b. Kilkenny , d. Entirely self-taught as a mathematician, he raised himself from the humble position which he occupied to be a university professor in the Catholic University of Ireland, and afterwards in the Royal University , and earned the highest reputation as one of the greatest authorities on plane geometry.

He was a correspondent of eminent mathematicians all over the world. Henry Hennessey b. He was a writer on mathematics, terrestrial physics, and climatology.

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Benjamin Williamson b. Sir Joseph Larmor b. He now represents the University in parliament and is secretary to the Royal Society.

He is well-known for his writings on the ether and on other physical as well as mathematical subjects. William Parsons, Earl of Rosse b. From he was engaged upon the construction, in his park at Parsonstown, of his great reflecting telescope 58 feet long. This instrument, which cost L30,, long remained the largest in the world. He was president of the Royal Society from to Sir Howard Grubb b.

Sir Robert Ball b. He was a great authority on the mathematical theory of screws, and his popular works on astronomy have made him known to a far wider circle of readers than those who can grapple with his purely scientific treatises. William Edward Wilson b. Westmeath , d. A man of independent means, he erected, with the help of his father, an astronomical observatory at his residence. In this well-equipped building he made many photographic researches, especially into the nature of nebulae.

He also devoted himself to solar physics, and wrote some remarkable papers on the sudden appearance in of the star Nova Persei. He was the first to call attention to the probability that radium plays a part in the maintenance of solar heat. In fact, the science of radio-activity was engaging his keenest interest at the time of his early death. Rambaut b.


Waterford , F. Lord Kelvin, better known as Sir William Thompson b. Belfast , d. Amongst the greatest physicists who have ever lived, his name comes second only to that of Newton. He was educated at Cambridge, became professor of natural philosophy in Glasgow University in , and celebrated the jubilee of his appointment in To the public his greatest achievement was the electric cabling of the Atlantic Ocean, for which he was knighted in To his scientific fellows, however, his greatest achievements were in the field of pure science, especially in connection with his thermodynamic researches, including the doctrine of the dissipation or degradation of energy.

To this brief statement may be added mention of his work in connection with hydrodynamics and his magnetic and electric discoveries. His papers in connection with wave and vortex movements are also most remarkable. He was awarded the Royal and Copley medals and was an original member of the Order of Merit.

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He received distinctions from many universities and learned societies. George Francis Fitzgerald b. Dublin , d. Perhaps his most important work, interrupted by his labors in connection with education and terminated by his early death, was that in connection with the nature of the ether. George Johnston Stoney b. John Tyndall b. Leighlin Bridge, Co.

Carlow, , d. He wrote also on heat as a mode of motion and was the author of many scientific papers, but will, perhaps, be best remembered as the author of a Presidential Address to the British Association in Belfast , which was the highwater mark of the mid-Victorian materialism at its most triumphant moment. Richard Kirwan b. Galway , d. A man of independent means, he devoted himself to the study of chemistry and mineralogy and was awarded the Copley medal of the Royal Society.

He published works on mineralogy and on the analysis of mineral waters, and was the first in Ireland to publish analyses of soils for agricultural purposes, a research which laid the foundation of scientific agriculture in Great Britain and Ireland. Maxwell Simpson b. Armagh , d.

Brandon, , d. James Emerson Reynolds b. Dublin , F. Sullivan b. Cork , d. Limerick , d. William Henry Harvey b. After this he was made keeper of the Herbarium, Trinity College, Dublin, but, obtaining leave of absence, travelled in North and South America, exploring the coast from Halifax to the Keys of Florida, in order to collect materials for his great work, Nereis Boreali-Americana , published by the Smithsonian Institution.

The results were published in his Phycologia Australis. At the time of his death he was engaged on his Flora Capensis , and was generally considered the first authority on algae in the world. William Archer b. Down , d. He attained a very prominent place in this branch of work among men of science. George James Allman b. Amongst eminent living members of the class under consideration may be mentioned Alexander Macalister b. Samuel Haughton b. Carlow , d. After graduating he became the reformer, it might even be said the re-founder, of that school.

He devoted ten years to the study of the mechanical principles of muscular action, and published his Animal Mechanism , probably his greatest work. He might have been placed in several of the categories which have been dealt with, but that of geologist has been selected, since in the later part of his most versatile career he was professor of geology in Trinity College, Dublin. Valentine Ball b. His best known work is Jungle-Life in India.

In later life he was director of the National Museum, Dublin. Very brief note can be taken of the many shining lights in Irish medical science. Robert James Graves , F. His System of Clinical Medicine was a standard work and was extolled by Trousseau, the greatest physician that France has ever had, in the highest terms of appreciation. William Stokes , Regius Professor of Medicine in Trinity College, and the author of a Theory and Practice of Medicine , known all over the civilized world, was equally celebrated.

Sir Rupert Boyce , F. Entering the medical profession, he was assistant professor of pathology at University College, London, and subsequently professor of pathology in University College, Liverpool, which he was largely instrumental in turning into the University of Liverpool. He was foremost in launching and directing the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, which has had such widespread results all over the world in elucidating the problems and checking the ravages of the diseases peculiar to hot countries. It was for his services in this direction that he was knighted in Sir Richard Quain b.

Mallow , d. He wrote on many subjects, but the Dictionary of Medicine , which he edited and which bears his name, has made itself and its editor known all over the world. Sir Almroth Wright b. He was the discoverer of the anti-typhoid injection which has done so much to stay the ravages of that disease.

Bindon Blood Stoney , F. Turning to engineering, he was responsible for the construction of many important works, especially in connection with the port of Dublin. He was brother of G. Sir Charles Parsons b. If he has revolutionized traffic on the water, so on the land has John Boyd Dunlop still living , who discovered the pneumatic tire with such wide-spread results for motorcars, bicycles, and such means of locomotion.

Admiral Sir Leopold McClintock b. Dundalk , d. He was the chief leader and organizer of the Franklin searches. From the scientific point of view he made a valuable collection of miocene fossils from Greenland, and enabled Haughton to prepare the geological map and memoir of the Parry Archipelago. John Ball b.

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He travelled widely and published many works on the natural history of Europe and South America from Panama to Tierra del Fuego. He was the first to suggest the utilization of the electric telegraph for meteorological purposes connected with storm warnings. Whatever may be thought of either as law, the former is Irish in every sense, and vastly the more interesting historically, archaeologically, philologically, and in many other ways; the latter being English law in Ireland, and not truly Irish in any sense.

It also tends to coalesce and become a prefix. Their laws were composed in their contemporary language, the Page 41 Bearla Feini , a distinct form of Gaelic. Several nations of the Aryan race are known to have cast into metre or rhythmical prose their laws and such other knowledge as they desired to communicate, preserve, and transmit, before writing came into use.

The Irish went further and, for greater facility in committing to memory and retaining there, put their laws into a kind of rhymed verse, of which they may have been the inventors. It is not to be inferred from this name that the laws are judge-made. A reader is impressed by the extraordinary number and variety of cases with their still more numerous details and circumstances accumulated in the course of long ages, the manner in which the laws are inextricably interwoven with the interlocking clan system, and the absence of scientific arrangement or guiding principle except those of moral justice, clemency, and the good of the community.

This defect in arrangement is natural in writings intended, as these were, for the use of judges and professors, experts in the subjects with which they deal, but makes the task of presenting a concise statement of them difficult and uncertain. The law and the social system were inseparable parts of a complicated whole, mutually cause and consequence of each other. Tuath, clann, cinel, cine , and fine pronounced thooah, clong, kinnel, kineh, and fin-yeh were terms used to denote a tribe or set of relatives, in reality or by adoption, claiming descent from a common ancestor, forming a community occupying and owning a given territory.

Tuath in course of time came to be applied indifferently to the people and to their territory. Fine , sometimes designating a whole tribe, more frequently meant a part of it, occupying a distinct portion of the territory, a potential microcosm or nucleus of a clan, having limited autonomy in the conduct of its own immediate affairs.

The constitution of this organism, whether as contemplated by the law or in the less perfect actual practice, is alike elusive, and underwent changes. The fine was liable, in measure determined by those circles, for contracts, fines, and damages incurred by any of its members so far as his own property was insufficient, and was in the same degree entitled to share advantages of a like kind accruing. Intermarriage within this fine was prohibited. This was the lowest chief to whom the title ri, righ both pr. The most competent among those specially trained, whether son or outsider, should succeed to the position and land.

All such land was legally indivisible and inalienable and descended in its entirety to the successor, who might, or might not, be a relative of the occupant. The beneficiaries were, however, free to retain any land that belonged to them as private individuals. Eineachlann rested on the two-fold basis of kinship and property, expanding as a clansman by acquisition of property and effluxion of time progressed upward from one grade to another; diminishing if he sank; vanishing if for crime he was expelled from the clan.

As modern life does not comprise either the custom or a reason for it, we may assume that fosterage was a consequence of the clan system, and that its practice strengthened the ties of kinship and sympathy. This conjecture is corroborated by the numerous instances in history and in story of fosterage affection proving, when tested, stronger than the natural affection of relatives by birth. What is more, long after the dissolution of the clans, fosterage has continued stealthily in certain districts in which the old race of chiefs and clansmen contrived to cling together to the old sod; and the affection generated by it has been demonstrated, down to the middle of the nineteenth century.

The present writer has heard it spoken of lovingly, in half-Irish, by simple old people, whom to question would be cruel and irreverent. The entire territory was originally, and always continued to be, the absolute property of the entire clan. Private ownership, though rather favored in the administration of the law, was prevented from becoming general by the fundamental ownership of the clan and the birthright of every free-born clansman to a sufficiency of the land of his native territory for his subsistence.

The land officially held as described was not, until the population became numerous, a serious encroachment upon this right. What remained outside this and the residential patches of private land was classified as cultivable and uncultivable. The clansmen, being owners in this limited sense, and the only owners, had no rent to pay.

The uncultivable, unreclaimed forest, mountain, and bog-land was common property in the wider sense that there was no several appropriation of it even temporarily by individuals. It was used promiscuously by the clansmen for grazing stock, procuring fuel, pursuing game, or any other advantage yielded by it in its natural state. Kings and flaiths were great stock-owners, and were allowed to let for short terms portions of their official lands. What they more usually let to clansmen was cattle to graze either on private land or on a specified part of the official land, not measured, but calculated according to the number of beasts it was able to support.

A flaith whose stock for letting ran short hired some from a king and sublet them to his own people. This prohibition was rendered operative by the legal provision that in case of default the flaith could not recover from the fine unless their consent had been obtained. Though workers in precious metals, as their ornaments show, the ancient Irish did not coin or use money. Sales were by barter. Tributes and rent, being alike paid in kind and to the same person, were easily confused.

This tempted the flaith , as the system relaxed, to extend his official power in the direction of ownership; but never to the extent of enabling him to evict a clansman. Every command or prohibition of the law, if not obeyed, was enforced by athgabail. The brehons reduced all liabilities of whatsoever origin to material value to be recovered by this means.

Hence its great importance, the vast amount of space devoted to it in the laws, and the fact that the law of distress deals incidentally with every other branch Page 46 of law and reveals best the customs, habits, and character of the people. A claimant in a civil case might either summon his debtor before a brehon, get a judgment, and seize the amount adjudged, or, by distraining first at his own risk, force the defendant either to pay or stop the seizure by submitting the matter in dispute to trial before a brehon, whom he then could choose. In a proper case his hands were strengthened by very explicit provisions of the law.

The costs were paid out of what remained, and any ultimate remainder was returned. The laws contained no process more strongly enforced than this. A defendant who allowed a plaintiff properly fasting to die of hunger was held by law and by public opinion guilty of murder, and completely lost his eineachlann. Both text and commentary declare that whoever refuses to cede a just demand when fasted upon shall pay double that amount. If the faster, having accepted a pledge, did not in due course receive satisfaction of his claim, he forthwith distrained, taking and keeping double the amount of the debt.

The law did not allow those whom it at first respected to trifle with justice. Troscead is believed to have been of druidical origin, and it retained throughout, even in Christian times, a sort of supernatural significance. Whoever disregarded it became an outcast and incurred risks and dangers too grave to be lightly faced. This mysterious character enhanced its value in a legal system deficient in executive power. From what precedes it will be understood that there were in ancient Ireland from prehistoric times people not comprised in the clan organization, and therefore not enjoying its rights and advantages or entitled to any of its land, some of whom were otherwise free within certain areas, while some were serfs and some slaves.

Those outsiders are conjectured to have originated in the earlier colonists subdued by the Milesians and reduced to an inferior condition. But the distinction did not wholly follow racial lines. Persons of pre-Milesian race are known to have risen to eminence, while Milesians are known to have sunk, from crime or other causes, to the lowest rank of the unfree. Beyond that restriction, exclusion from the clan and its power, some peculiarities of dialect, dress, and manners, and a tradition of inferiority such as still exists in certain parishes, they were not molested, provided they paid tribute, which may have been heavy.

If they had resided in the territory for three generations, and been industrious, thrifty, and orderly, on a few of them joining their property together to the number of one hundred head of cattle, they could emancipate themselves by appointing a flaithfine and getting admitted to the clan. Till this was done, they could neither sue nor defend nor inherit, and the flaith was answerable for their conduct. The law allowed, rather than entitled, a flaith to keep unfree people for servile occupations and the performance of unskilled labor for the public benefit.

In reality they worked for his personal profit, oftentimes at the expense of the clan. They lived on his land, and he was responsible for their conduct. By analogy, the distinctions saer and daer were recognized among them, according to origin, character, and means. Where these elements continued to be favorable for three generations, progress upward was made; and ultimately a number of them could club together, appoint a flaithfine , and apply to be admitted to the clan.

A mog was a slave in the strict sense, usually purchased as such from abroad, and legally and socially lower than the lowest fuidir. Giraldus Cambrensis, writing towards the close of the twelfth century, tells us that English parents then frequently sold their surplus children and other persons to the Irish as slaves. The Church repeatedly intervened for the release of captives and mitigation of their condition.

The whole institution of slavery was strongly condemned as un-Christian by the Synod held in Armagh in Though there are numerous laws relating to crime, to be found chiefly in the Book of Aicill , criminal law in the sense of a code of punishment there was none. The law took cognizance of crime and wrong of every description against person, character, and property; and its function was to prevent and restrict crime, and when committed to determine, according to the facts of the case and the respective ranks of the parties, the value of the compensation or reparation that should be made.

It treated crime as a mode of incurring liability; entitled the sufferer, or, if he was murdered, his fine , to bring the matter before a brehon, who, on hearing the case, made the complicated calculations and adjustments rendered necessary by the facts proved and by the grades to which the respective parties belonged, arrived at and gave judgment for the amount of the compensation, armed with which judgment, the plaintiff could immediately distrain for that amount the property of the criminal, and, in his default, that of his fine.

The fine could escape part of its liability by arresting and giving up the convict, or by expelling him and giving substantial security against his future misdeeds. From the number of elements that entered into the calculation of a fine, it necessarily resulted that like fines by no means followed like crimes. These were the only cases to which the law attached a sentence of death or other corporal punishment. For nothing whatsoever between parties did the law recognize any duty of revenge, retaliation, or the infliction of personal punishment, but only the payment of compensation.

Personal punishment was regarded as the commission of a second crime on account of a first. There was no duty to do this; but the right to do it was tacitly recognized if a criminal resisted or evaded payment of an adjudged compensation. Dire djeereh was a general name for a fine, and there were specific names for classes of fines. A fine was awarded out of the property of the convict or of his fine to the fine of the person slain, in the proportions in which they were entitled to inherit his property, that being also according to their degrees of kinship and the degrees in which they were really sufferers.

This gave every clan and every clansman, in addition to their moral interest, a direct monetary interest in the prevention and suppression of crime. Hence the whole public feeling of the country was entirely in support of the law, the honor and interest of community and individual being involved in its maintenance. The injured person or fine , if unable to recover the fine, might, in capital cases, seize and enslave, or even kill, the convict. Probably restrained by the fact that, there being no officers of criminal law, they had to inflict punishment themselves, they sometimes imprisoned a convict in a small island, or sent him adrift on the sea in a currach or boat of hide.

Law supported by public opinion, powerful because so inspired, powerful because unanimous, was difficult to evade or resist. It so strongly armed an injured person, and so utterly paralyzed a criminal, that escape from justice was hardly possible. The Danes and other Norsemen were the buccaneers of northwestern Europe from the eighth to the eleventh century.

They conquered and settled permanently in Neustria, from them called Normandy, and conquered and ruled for a considerable time England and part of Scotland and the Isles. In Ireland they were little more than marauders, having permanent colonies only round the coast; always subject, nominally at least, to the ard-ri or to the local chief; paying him tribute when he was strong, raiding his territory when he was weak, and fomenting recurrent disorder highly prejudicial to law, religion, and civilization. They never made any pretence of extending their laws to Ireland, and their attempt to conquer the country was finally frustrated at Clontarf in The Anglo-Norman invaders also seized the seaports.

The earlier of them who went inland partially adopted in the second generation the Gaelic language, laws, and customs; as many non-Celtic Lowlanders of Scotland about the same period adopted the Gaelic language, laws, and customs of the Highlanders. Hence they did not make much impression on the Gaelic system, beyond the disintegrating effect of their imperfect adoption of it. They, and still more those in England who supported them, knew nothing of the Irish language, laws, and institutions but that they should all be impartially hated, uprooted, and supplanted by English people and everything English as soon as means enabled this to be done.

Presuming to speak in the name of Ireland, the statute prohibited the English colonists from becoming Irish in the numerous ways they were accustomed to do, and excluded all Irish priests from preferment in the Church, partly because their superior virtue would by contrast amount to a censure. The purpose was not completely successful even within the Pale. Under King Henry VI. On the other hand, in , under Henry VII. This, extended to the whole of Ireland as English power extended, remained in force until Henry VIII.

His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, continued and completed the conquest; but it was by drenching the country in blood, by more than decimating the Irish people, and by reducing the remnant to something like the condition of the ancient fuidre. Her policy prepared the ground for her successor, James I. The ancient Irish loved their laws and took pride in obeying and enforcing them.

Though the Parliament of was little more than a Pale Parliament, in which the mass of the Irish people had no representation whatever, one of its Acts, to its credit be it said, was an attempt to mitigate the Penal Laws and emancipate the oppressed Gaelic and Catholic population of Ireland. With the partial exception of that brief interval, law in Ireland has, during the last years, meant English laws specially enacted for the destruction of any Irish trade or industry that entered into competition with a corresponding English trade or industry.

In later times those crude barbarities have been gradually superseded by the more defensible laws now in force in Ireland, all of which can be studied in statutes passed by the Parliament, since the Union with Scotland, called British. Pending the desirable work of a more competent Brehon Law Commission and translators, the subject must be studied in the six volumes of Ancient Laws of Ireland , produced by the first Commission, from to , ignoring the long introductions and many of the notes.

Perhaps nothing so strikingly brings home the association of Ireland with music as the fact that the harp is emblazoned on the national arms. The Milesians, the De Dananns, and other pre-Christian colonists were musical. Hecataeus B. Certain it is that, even before the coming of St. Patrick, the Irish were a highly cultured nation, and the national Apostle utilized music and song in his work of conversion. In the early Lives of the Irish Saints musical references abound, and the Irish school of music attracted foreign scholars from the sixth to the ninth century.

Hymnologists are familiar with the hymns written by early Irish saints and laics, e. Sechnall, St. Columcille, St. Molaise, St. Cuchuimne, St. Columbanus, St. Ultan, St. Colman, St. Cummain, St. Aengus, Dungal, Sedulius, Moengal, and others. Who has not heard of the great music school of San Gallen, founded by St.

Not alone did Irish monks propagate sacred and secular music throughout France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and the far North, but they made their influence felt In Lindisfarne, Malmesbury, Glastonbury, and other cities in England, as also in Scotland. Aldhelm, one of the pupils of St. Donnchadh, an Irish bishop of the ninth century, who died as abbot of St. Remigius, wrote a commentary on Martianus Capella, a well-known musical text book.

Towering above all his fellows, John Scotus Erigena, in , wrote a tract De Divisione Naturae , in which he expounds organum or discant, nearly a hundred years before the appearance of the Scholia Enchiriadis and the Musica Enchiriadis. The eulogy of Giraldus Cambrensis, or Gerald Barry, who came to Ireland in , on Irish harpers and minstrels is too well known to be repeated, but Brompton and John of Salisbury are equally enthusiastic.

Ground bass, or pedal point, and singing in parts, as well as bands of harpers and pipers, were in vogue in Ireland before the coming of the English. Dante, quoted by Galilei, testifies to the fact that Italy received the harp from Ireland; and, it may be added, the Irish harp suggested the pianoforte. Another poem, dating from about , refers to Irish dances in a flattering manner. John Garland wrote a treatise on Organum , and outlined a scheme of dividing the interval, which developed into ornamentation, passing notes, and grace notes.

The Dublin Troper of the thirteenth century has a number of farced Kyries and Glorias, also a collection of Sequences. Another Dublin Troper dates from and was used in St. The Christ Church Psaltery, about , has musical notation and is exquisitely illuminated.

Lionel Power, an Anglo-Irishman, wrote the first English treatise on music in Exactly a century later, in , a music school was founded in Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin.

Notwithstanding the many penal enactments against Irish minstrels, all the great Anglo-Irish nobles of the Pale retained an Irish harper and piper in their service. Bathe wrote a second musical treatise in , and he was the first to call measures by the name of bars. He also formulated methods of transposition and sight reading that may still be studied with profit.

Thomas Campion, the poet and composer, was born in Dublin in , but spent nearly all his life in England. Strange as it may seem, Queen Elizabeth retained in her service an Irish harper, Cormac MacDermot, from to , and on the death of the queen he was given an annual pension of L46 10s. Irish dances were extremely popular at the English court from to and were introduced into the Masks.

Darby Scott was harper to the Danish Court from till his death, at Copenhagen, on December 19, Evelyn, the English diarist, in , praises the excellent performance on the harp of Sir Edward Sutton, who, in the following year, was granted by King Charles II. The titles of several airs of this epoch are of historical interest, e.

The Jacobite period from to considerably influenced Irish minstrelsy, and some of the most delightful airs were adapted to Jacobite lyrics. As early as the Hibernian Catch Club was established and still flourishes. Cecilian celebrations were held from to , and a Dublin Academy of Music was founded in The Charitable and Musical Society founded in built the Fishamble Street Music Hall in , and assisted at the first performance of The Messiah , conducted by Handel himself, on 13th April, Murphy, and Burke Thumoth were famous instrumentalists.

On the continent, Henry Madden was music director of the Chapel Royal at Versailles in in succession to Campra , and was also canon of St. In the Earl of Mornington, Mus. A few years later Charles Clagget invented the valve-horn. Michael Kelly of Dublin was specially selected by Mozart to create the parts of Basilio and Don Curzio at the first performance of the opera of Figaro , on May 1st, Doyle, T. Cogan was not confined to Ireland. The Belfast meeting of revived the vogue of the national instrument. Nor was the bagpipe neglected. Ere the close of the eighteenth century John Field of Dublin was a distinguished pianist.

He subsequently invented the nocturne, developed by Chopin. Famous vocalists like Catherine Hayes, Mrs. Woods, Victor Herbert, Mrs. Needham, Dr. Charles Marchant, Brendan Rogers, Dr. Joze, and Professor Buck; writers like Mrs. Curwen, Dr. Annie Patterson, Mrs. Milligan Fox, Professor Mahaffy, A. Graves, Dr. In the Royal Irish Academy awarded him the Cunningham gold medal "for his literary writings, especially in the field of Shakespearian criticism. By: O'Toole, John ; [pseudonym "Imaal"].

OCLC: First published in ; this edition has an additional essay according to a note on the verso of the title page. A decent copy, there is a faint stain to the label on the spine. No marks, signatures, etc. Essays include What is Genius? The Century of Progress. The Mother of the Arts. The Philosophy of Revolution. The author questions the notion of "progress" defined in terms of industrial achievement when it i Dunne, but spent most of her formative years in Dublin and co By: Tibbits, Charles John Tibbits.

He work began to appear in Dublin publications in , as well as his translations of work from German, Turkish, Arabic and Irish. Publisher: Boston, John W. Luce: Clean and secure in original binding of green boards with white spine, gilt lettering, some wear at spine ends. A one-act play written by the Irish playwright J. Synge and first performed at the Molesworth Hall, Dublin, on October 8, Synge — was an Irish playwright, poet, prose writer, travel writer and collector of folklore. He was a key figure in the Irish Literary Revival and was one of the co-founders of the Abbey Theatre.

He is best known for his play The Playboy of the Western World, which caused riots in Dublin during its opening run at the Abbey Theatre. A collection of the essays written during his travels through these counties and originally published in the "Manchester Guardian" and in a quarterly Irish literary magazine, "The Shanachie". These fourteen essays are a valuable document on the inhabitants and their social conditions at the turn of the century.

It also contains the raw material, fragments of folklore, patterns of sp Publisher: London, John Murray: A couple spots of color loss on front cover of binding, otherwise quite nice. Dennis makes the argument that Ireland is rich in resources and those resources should be harnassed by the Irish for their own benefit. Publisher: Dublin, Conradh na Gaeilge: