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International Committee of the Red Cross. Archived from the original on February 22, Retrieved July 20, Archived from the original on February 21, Forsythe June 17, Deutsche Welle. June 30, UN Treaty Organization. Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved October 13, Human Rights Watch. July 24, United Nations Office of Legal Affairs. Retrieved October 18, Archived from the original on August 18, Retrieved August 17, Al Jazeera English.

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Martin's Press. Perfidy, Section I. Simulation of civilian status". International Red Cross. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved September 22, The Hague, 18 October ". Retrieved July 24, BMJ Open.

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The German capitulation was both political, involving the dissolution of the Government, and military, whereas the Japanese capitulation was only military. Moreover, the situation was different since Germany was a party to the Convention and Japan was not. Nevertheless, the German and Japanese troops were considered as surrendered enemy personnel and were deprived of the protection provided by the Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. This term is also used in the opening sentence of Article 4, replacing the expression "captured" which was used in the Convention Article 1.

It indicates clearly that the treatment laid down by the Convention is applicable not only to military personnel taken prisoner in the course of fighting, but also to those who fall into the hands of the adversary following surrender or mass capitulation.

Zone William S. Department of Defense. Office of General Counsel, author. Department of Defense law of war manual.

From Charles I to Bush II

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Justice at Risk: War Crimes Trials in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro

Corporal punishment. List of human rights organisations National human rights institutions. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Goering is at first toasted with champagne, but later is transferred to Bad Mondorf in Luxembourg. May 23, British tanks enter Flensburg, Germany. Heinrich Himmler, the most powerful and terrifying of the Nazi leaders after Hitler, commits suicide.

June 26, Robert Jackson departs Washington to meet with his Allied counterparts in London to discuss legal proceedings against Nazi officials. Numerous disagreements are discussed, including whether to use the adversarial system favored by the americans and British, or the inquisitive system favored by the French and Soviets.

The Allies agree to prohibit the use of the defense of superior orders, although they agree to allow its consideration in mitigation of sentence. He inspects the Palace of Justice and decides to recommend it as a site for the upcoming trials.


The Soviets prefer that the trials take place in Berlin, within their zone of occupation. July 21, Jackson returns to Nuremberg with British and French representatives. They inspect possible housing accomodations. August 8, The London Agreement is signed by the Allies, enabling the prosecution of war criminals.

August 12, Major war criminals that had been housed in Luxembourg are flown to Nuremberg, where they are incarcerated in a prison adjacent to the Palace of Justice. September 5, Robert Jackson meets with President Truman. Truman proposes naming former attorney general Francis Biddle as the American judge at Nuremberg. Jackson, who does not think highly of Biddle, suggests alternatives, but Biddle gets the appointment.

The Rise and Fall of War Crimes Trials: From Charles I to Bush II - Featured Events - Lewis & Clark

October 25, Robert Ley, former chief of the German Labor Front and one of the prisoners awaiting trial, commits suicide. November 20, The trial of the major war criminals by the International Military Tribunal begins at 10 a. November 21, The defendants enter their pleas of "Not Guilty. Justice Robert Jackson delivers his opening statement for the prosecution.

November 29, The prosecution introduces a film shot by Allied photographers in liberated areas. The graphic footage of Nazi horrors causes weeping in the courtroom. Some defendants appeared shocked by what they see; others seem bored.

December 13, The prosecution introduces grissly evidence from Buechenwald concentration camp. Items include tattoed human skin favored by the commandant's wife for use in tablelamps and other household furnishings and the head of an executed Pole used as a paperweight by Commandant Karl Koch.

His impressive performance will help secure his appointment as lead prosecutor in the subsequent Nuremberg trials. January 28, During the French phase of the prosecution, French journalist Marie Claude Vaillant-Courturier provides heart-wrenching eyewitness testimony of atrocities at Auschwitz. February 16, The decision is made to end the practice of allowing all the defendants to eat together on days the court is in session.

From this date on, the defendants eat in groups of four--except for Goering who is left to eat alone in an attempt to reduce his influence over the rest of the defendants. February 18, Russian prosecutors offer into evidence a minute film, including footage from captured German films, showing shocking evidence of atrocities. March 6, The Soviets finish their presentation and the prosecution rests. The news of Churchill's speech gives the defendants renewed hope.

Re-trial by TV: The Rise and Fall of Rough Justice

March 29, Robert Jackson appoints Telford Taylor to succeed him as chief prosecutor in the subsequent Nuremberg trials. April 1-, Rudolf Hoess not to be confused with defendant Rudolf Hess , commandant at Auschwitz concentration camp, provides graphic testimony of mass executions at his camp. October 1, The verdicts against the major war criminals are handed down by the International Military Tribunal.